The increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by heavy use of fossil fuels are a big concern. One promising solution to reduce greenhouse emissions is using photo-electrochemistry to convert sunlight, captured CO2 and water into chemicals for energy storage. In an attempt to mimic the photosynthesis process in the generation of green fuels like hydrogen (H2), the efforts of researchers have been guided towards the development of a standalone  water splitting system powered by sunlight. However, reaching a high voltage combined with a broadband light absorption limitations is a rather difficult hurdle to overcome. Moreover, most catalysts used for CO2 conversion produce some undesired products.



Poor CO2R catalyst selectivity and efficiency
Incomplete utilization of sunlight spectrum
Low current densities and insufficient voltages
Dependence on toxic and/or critical raw materials
Hard to up-scale system designs and processes